The “old poison” of the plant kingdom

  Gelsemium elegans: kills
   many novels often appear in poison. In the ranking list of poisons, the gutta-percha is among the top, and its toxicity is comparable to that of Crane Ding Red. In the familiar Jin Yong martial arts novel “The Legend of Condor Heroes”, the protagonist Yang Guo once took the herb. In fact, the grass is not only present in novels and film and television dramas. In history, there are countless examples of killing people with the grass.
   The genus Echinochloa is a woody liana, also known as the vine, the big tea medicine, and the kudzu. Weeds grow in low mountain and hilly areas, and are mostly distributed in Zhejiang, Fujian, Hunan, Guangdong, Guizhou, Yunnan and other places in China, as well as Southeast Asia and India.
   The whole plant is highly toxic, and its main toxic components are alkaloids, as many as 16 kinds, such as Leptoxin A, C, D, E, He, N-methoxy Leptoxin A and so on. Its toxicity can cause a strong reaction in the human digestive system, circulatory system and respiratory system. The intestines will become black and sticky. Symptoms of poisoning include salivation, nausea, dysphagia, fever, foaming at the mouth, convulsions, numbness of the limbs, muscle weakness, and muscle fibers Vibration, hard tongue, slurred speech, arrhythmia, etc.
   Aconitum: The whole family are all poisonous
   spring of the year, there are four visitors to Beijing Miyun Yunmengshan tourism. When eating at a small restaurant in the mountains, the chef specially made a wild vegetable for them-stone cauliflower. Unexpectedly, shortly after the meal, all four of them developed symptoms of poisoning such as abdominal pain and dizziness, and one of them died after rescue. After identification, it turned out that the chef mistakenly used the young leaves of Aconitum aconitum as Gelidium acorrhiza.
   Aconitum is distributed in Northeast and North China. It belongs to the genus Aconitum in the Ranunculaceae family. There are more than 300 species of this genus in the world, of which there are more than 160 species in my country, all of which are poisonous. Its roots, young leaves, flowers and fruits are not edible.
   The roots and young leaves of Aconitum vulgare contain a variety of alkaloids such as aconitine, which is also a toxic component of Aconitum vulgare. Its lethal dose to humans is only 34 mg. What’s interesting is that in traditional Chinese medicine, the roots of Aconitum and Aconitum can be used as medicine after being processed and detoxified. They have the effects of dispelling wind and cold, dehumidifying and relieving pain, and are mainly used for rheumatoid arthritis, Kaschin-Beck disease, etc. .
   Symptoms of Aconitum poisoning include numbness, thirst, strong burning sensation in the stomach, speech difficulties, vision and hearing loss, blood pressure drop, heart palsy, respiratory failure, etc.
   The commonly referred to as Aconitum is Chuanwu, while Caulis aconitum is Northern Aconitum. The performance of the two is similar, but the toxicity of the Aconitum (Northern Aconitum) is greater than that of Aconitum (Chuanwu). Why is it called Aconitum? It’s because of its inverted cone shape, like a crow’s head.
   Ma Sang:
   In the 1960s, I went to Sichuan with two researchers from the Chinese Academy of Sciences to collect plant specimens. I saw many small red berries hanging on the bushes on the roadside. It was very attractive. I couldn’t help but pick them. When you come, you have to enter the entrance. Fortunately, the people in the same group saw it and stopped it in time: “This is a horse sang fruit, very poisonous, and it cannot be eaten.”
   What kind of plant is horse sang? Ma Sang belongs to the genus Ma Sang Ke Ma Sang, also known as Millennium Red, Shangtian Ladder, Buddleia. It is mainly distributed in the northwest and southwest of my country, and also in Henan, Hubei, Hunan and other provinces. It grows in hillside shrubs.
   The whole mulberry plant is poisonous, and the young leaves and immature fruits are the most toxic. If a person accidentally ingests its green fruit, it only takes 15 grams to be poisoned, which manifests as numbness, nausea and vomiting, accelerated breathing, convulsions and even coma. Ma sang fruit looks like mulberry, tastes slightly sweet, and is easy to eat by children. Pay attention to the following characteristics when identifying the mulberry: the branchlets are ribbed, purple-red; the leaves are opposite, oval; the small flowers are green and purple. The toxic components of colander are colander, butyrolactone and so on.
   Araceae and Pinellia: Use good as medicine, wrong use is poison.
   In the 1970s, I took a few students to the outskirts of Beijing to engage in teaching activities on identification of wild Chinese herbal medicines. I told them the morphological characteristics of Araceae and Pinellia. Later, in the mountains, both of these plants were found. Unexpectedly, a student quietly put a piece of Araceae tuber in his mouth to chew, wanting to taste what it tasted like. Soon, his mouth was numb; then, his speech was uncomfortable. Fortunately, the student just chewed in his mouth instead of swallowing it; otherwise, the consequences would be disastrous.
   Araceae belongs to the genus Araceae in the Araceae family. A common species in Beijing is Araceae, which is also known as Araceae and Shanbaomi. It is a perennial herb. Tiannanxingxi grows in the gullies and wet areas under the forests in Henan, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Hubei and other places in my country. The whole plant of Araceae is toxic, and its toxic components are triterpene saponins and so on. If a person accidentally eats it, it can cause tongue swelling and pain, slurred speech, difficulty opening the mouth, dizziness, palpitation, numbness of the limbs, difficulty breathing, coma, and even death from paralysis.
   Pinellia also belongs to the Araceae family and belongs to the genus Pinellia. The common species is Pinellia. At first birth, there is one leaf, and then three palmate leaflets. Commonly found in grass slopes, wastelands, corn fields, fields or under sparse forests, it is one of the weeds in dry land. It is mostly distributed in Northeast my country, North China, East China, Southwest China and other places.
   Pinellia tubers are highly toxic, but they can be used as medicine after being processed and detoxified. They have the effects of appetizing, invigorating the spleen, relieving cough and expectorating, and are used to treat cough and sputum, neurogenic vomiting and other symptoms.
   Tripterygium: This tree is not Bracteatum
   south in some places have the habit of eating black rice, which is: collecting VBT leaves, smashed, whichever ebony juice mix into the rice, cooking fire scriptures thoroughly, It becomes black rice, which has a fragrant and delicious taste, which will increase the appetite.
   There was a family member who cooked black rice. Unexpectedly, soon after the meal, the whole family had the same symptoms of poisoning: nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea, decreased blood pressure, and difficulty breathing. After rescue, except for one person who died due to eating more, the others survived. Afterwards, the investigation revealed that the family mistakenly used Tripterygium wilfordii leaves for black rice leaves, causing food poisoning.
   Tripterygium wilfordii is distributed in my country’s Yangtze River Basin and all provinces to the south. It is a plant of the genus Tripterygium of the Euonymaceae family, also known as a vine, is a vine shrub. Branchlets are brownish-red, ridged, with rusty short hairs. The leaves are oval or broadly ovoid, with fine teeth on the edges. The flowers are white-green and the ovary is triangular.
   The leaves of Tripterygium wilfordii are larger than those of Urumqi. The flower is not pure white, and the fruit is not a berry. It has three wings and is a capsule. Although Tripterygium wilfordii has great poison, its roots, leaves, flowers, and fruits can all be used as medicine. External use to treat rheumatoid arthritis, but also can kill insects, snails, and poisonous mice, but it must not be taken orally.
   Poisonous hemlock and poisonous ginseng: killed Socrates
   One year, when I went to Huairou Loulougoumen in Beijing, when I got off the car, I saw a tall grass growing by a small river not far away. I looked closely at it and it turned out to be poisonous celery. There is a common edible cress on the waterside of Beijing suburbs. Although it is similar to poison celery, the two can still be distinguished.
   The leaves of water cress are 1 or 2 pinnately divided, and the final lobes are ovate to rhombic-lanceolate. Obviously, the lower part of the cress lobes are wider, with sharp teeth on the edges, and some lobes have small, short stalks. The leaves of the poison celery are 2 or 3 pinnately compound leaves, the leaflets are rectangular and lanceolate, obviously longer and narrower, and have no stalk, and the edges have nicks or coarse teeth. The fruit of cress is oval, while the fruit of poison celery is oval. The lower part of the cress stalk is creeping, and the nodes have fine roots, while the base of the poisonous celery is upright, thick, not creeping, and there are transverse internodes

   Poison celery belongs to the genus Umbelliferae, also known as celery, wild celery, and celery genus. It is a perennial herb with a height of over 1 meter. It is mostly found in swamps or water ditches, and is distributed in Northeast my country, North China, Northwest China, Sichuan and other places.
   The whole plant is poisonous, and the rhizome is particularly toxic. Its main toxic component is toxin, which can act on the central nervous system and has a very significant spasm-causing effect. After being poisoned, people will have symptoms such as dizziness, vomiting, cramps, redness of the skin, and blue complexion. Eventually, they will suffer from paralysis and die of respiratory failure.
   Socrates, the great ancient Greek philosopher, was sentenced to death by the Athens court. According to legend, it was a bowl of poisonous celery juice that ended his life. In fact, the poisonous hemlock that poisoned Socrates is another plant called poisonous ginseng, also known as poisonous ginseng and scutellaria, belonging to the genus poisonous ginseng of the Umbelliferae family.
   Poisonous ginseng belongs to the genus Poisonous plant of the Umbelliferae family. It is a biennial herb, 1.5 to 1.8 meters high, with thick roots and hollow stems. Mainly distributed in Europe, Asia, North Africa, North America and other places, my country only has distribution in Xinjiang.
   The whole plant of poisonous ginseng is poisonous, and its fruit is the most toxic. The toxic ingredient is phytopine which acts on the central nervous system. This is a strongly alkaline alkaloid, which smells like rat urine, which can paralyze the respiratory muscles and cause suffocation. Livestock are generally not edible, but their seedlings are easily mixed into pastures, which can cause poisoning by accidental eating of livestock.
   Antiaris: Yongzheng Emperor to have it to get rid of
   what the world’s most poisonous tree? The answer is “see the blood in the throat”. It is said that in the past, hunters painted the sap of this tree on the arrowhead. Once they hit the prey, the toxicity immediately took place, and the prey soon fell to the ground and died. Therefore, this kind of tree is also called “Arachnid”.
   If someone accidentally lets the sap of this tree enter the body through the wound, symptoms such as inability to speak, difficulty breathing, etc. will soon appear, and they will die quickly. Therefore, this tree is called “seeing blood seals the throat”.
   According to legend, during the Yongzheng period of the Qing Dynasty, in order to prevent “seeing blood to seal the throat” by political enemies for assassination, Emperor Yongzheng sent someone to cut down this tree in the southwest. However, because the tree was distributed in deep mountain forest, it could not be eradicated Exhausted, still survived.
   “See blood seal throat” belongs to the large tree of the Moraceae See blood seal throat, up to 30 meters high, with milky white sap. The bark is gray with foamy protrusions on the surface. It is mainly distributed in my country’s southern Guangdong, southern Guangxi and Yunnan. It is also distributed in countries such as Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.
   The milky white sap of “Seeing the blood seals the throat” contains toxic components cardiac glycosides, as well as α-saccharotoxin, β-ssaccharoside, α-bearin, lily of the venom, etc. The toxic symptoms are The muscles relax and the heartbeat slows down until it stops. Once a person is poisoned, he will die within 20 minutes or less than an hour or two.
   Tobacco: The most notorious poisonous weeds
   see grandfather hookah childhood, find it interesting, they take advantage of his grandfather when out of the house, secretly took his water pipe and inhaled. Unexpectedly, the cigarette was not inhaled, but he drank a mouthful of water with a very strong smell of cigarettes, and quickly vomited it out. From then on, he never dared to take a step closer to the tobacco.
   Tobacco belongs to the Nicotiana genus Solanaceae. It is an annual herb with a height of up to 2 meters and glandular hairs throughout the plant. The leaves are alternate, the leaves are long round-lanceolate, 10-30 cm long and 8-15 cm wide. The panicles are terminal, the calyx is cylindrical, and the corolla is funnel-shaped. The light red capsules are ovoid in shape and have many seeds. Flower and bear fruit in autumn.
   Tobacco harm is one of the most serious public health problems in the world today. Tobacco contains a variety of toxic substances, and the main toxic component is nicotine. Nicotine is present in the whole tobacco plant, with the highest content in the leaves, accounting for 64% of the whole plant; the lowest content in the seeds, almost no. Nicotine is highly toxic, and its strength and speed are comparable to those of hydrocyanic acid. If a person is exposed to nicotinic toxicity, symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, sweating, dizziness, headache, dyspnea, coma, cramps, and drop in body temperature may occur, and may die from respiratory paralysis. If you eat 30 to 60 grams of tobacco, you can die within a few minutes.
   Although tobacco is poisonous, it can be used as anesthesia, sweating, analgesic, and emetics in medicine.
   Sheep walking: once lived in Mongolian sweat medicine
   In the south, whenever spring comes, the mountains and fields are full of rhododendrons, glowing red. In that patch of red, there are occasionally some yellow flowers, and the flowers are slightly larger than rhododendrons. The adults said, this is called a sheep’s walk, it is poisonous, and children can’t touch it. If a sheep eats this plant by mistake, it will stagger as it walks, tossing back and forth, as if drunk. Therefore, this plant is called mutton. To hesitate means to linger.
   Sheep CiuCiu, also known as Lamb flower, Rhododendron candidum, Sheep not eating grass, etc., belongs to the deciduous shrub of the genus Rhododendron in the Rhododendron family, which is 1.4 meters high. The leaves are papery, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, with bristles on the edges. The inflorescence is terminal, with several flowers, first leaves or open with the leaves; the corolla is broadly campanulate and golden yellow. The capsule is cylindrical, oblong, and hairy.
   Sheep walking is common in low mountain and hilly areas. It is distributed in all provinces and regions south of the Yangtze River in my country. The whole plant is poisonous, with flowers and fruits being the most toxic. The ancients have long known that the mutton is poisonous, and there are related records in the herbal works of the past dynasties. It is said that the ancient Mongolian sweat medicine contains the ingredients of sheep scorpion, indicating that it has anesthetic effect. If a person accidentally eats it, symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, arrhythmia, numbness of the hands and feet, and falling asleep may occur. In severe cases, they may die due to breathing difficulties.